Aim. The present article aimed at reviewing the literature regarding factors causing arteriosclerosis.
Background. The origin of arteriosclerosis, which leads to the development of cardiovascular diseases, is quite complicated. The pathogens involved in arteriosclerosis include hemodynamic, thrombotic, carbohydrates, lipid, metabolic changes, and the inherent properties of the arterial wall. These physiological and biochemical properties finally give rise to the clinical symptoms in patients. Furthermore, environmental factors such as smoking, and changing lifestyle can aggravate these symptoms. The progression of arteriosclerosis and the increase in its severity depends on these risk factors as well as their continuation over time.
Method. The present research reviewed the literature published within the last 20 years concerning the factors causing arteriosclerosis. The articles were searched out using databases Science Direct, PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, SID, Scopus, Iran Doc, OVID, CINAHL, and Magiran and the keywords were Atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and their Persian equivalents.
Findings. The findings indicated that there have been considerable developments in identifying the factors causing Atherosclerosis, factors such as age, sex, hypertension, smoking, increase in the LDL level, decrease in the HDL and cholesterol level, which are effective in the development of atherosclerosis, and the metabolic factors (disorder of glucose metabolism), thrombogenic and homeostatic factors such as fibrinogen and inflammatory factors that can lead to cardiovascular diseases. Despite the various studies carried out in this regard, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death as reported by the World Health Organization and the methods for controlling and preventing these diseases have not yet been completely developed.
Conclusion. Taking into account the high mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases, besides identifying the risk factors leading to arteriosclerosis, there must be public education at every level in order to increase awareness, cause fundamental changes in people’s lifestyles, and increase patient self-care education.